Visceral leishmaniasis has killed 260 people in southern Sudan in the past year, with deaths estimated to double in the coming months, according to World Health Organization.
More than 9,000 cases of the parasitic disease have been identified in southern Sudan since September 2009.
The areas of Jonglei and Upper Nile were found to be most affected, with more than half of the cases concentrated in these areas.
Visceral leishmaniasis is a tropical disease spread by sand flies. It is characterised by fever, weight loss and an enlarged spleen and liver.