T2, a cardiac biomarker, can help physicians to better predict the prognosis and development of cardiovascular complications such as heart failure, according to three new studies.

In the first, involving 30 patients with American Heart Association stage D heart failure, elevated levels of ST2 were associated with the failed achievement of filling pressure goals and death.

Elevated levels of ST2 >104ng/mL predicted mortality, left ventricular assist device placement or heart transplant within 90 days.

In the second study involving 995 patients, ST2 conveyed the risk of death and heart failure in patients presenting to the emergency department with chest pain.

After adjusting other biomarkers including BNP, the hazard ratio for risk of death or developing heart failure was still high at 3.1.

In the third study involving 140 clinically stable patients diagnosed with myocardial infarction, elevated ST2 and BNP were associated with clinical and echocardiographic findings, indicative of increased filling pressures and myocardial stretch.